Imagine yourself and your family, forced from your home in the dead of winter, with nothing more than the few supplies you were able to carry amongst yourselves. Then imagine being shuttered into a community center with thousands of other families, displaced from their homes as well, relying on what few supplies the government could provide.
If you live a comfortable middle-class lifestyle in a first world country, this situation sounds preposterous, doesn’t it? It is not. Families, just like yours, faced this exact plight on December 20, 2013, when a massive ice storm hit parts of central Canada and the U.S., crippling many cities and leaving tens of thousands without power for days, sometimes weeks. Those who were prepared for such an event, having items such as blankets and medications to bring with them, fared much better than their ill-prepared counterparts.
In today’s modern society, we’ve come to rely almost implicitly on having a dependable source of power. When power fails, it causes utter and complete chaos for those not fortunate enough to have had the foresight to prepare.
- What Is Power Grid Failure and Why Should I Care?
- What Causes Power Grid Failure?
- What Can I Expect During a Power Grid Failure?
- What Will I Need to Prepare My Family?
- Further Reading
What Is Power Grid Failure and Why Should I Care?
Of all the threats your disaster plan should consider, power grid failure is one of the more realistic and among the most likely to occur. When a power grid fails, a substantial geographic area can be without power for hours, days, or sometimes even weeks.
In addition to the 2013 ice storm that decimated power sources to many areas of central Canada and the U.S., there have been several other power grid failures in the last decade that brought panic and chaos to areas all over the world:
- In 2007, Indonesia suffered major grid failure due to a drop in demand that affected nearly 100 million people for over 7 hours
- India faces ongoing grid issues due to sporadic increases in demand
- In 2003, the Northeast Blackout at Con Edison left 55 million people in Canada and the U.S. without power; in some cases, this lasted for more than 2 days
- In 2005, Louisiana and surrounding areas dealt with the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina that left 2.6 million people without power; some for extended periods of time due to the extensive flooding that structurally damaged buildings and blocked access to power sources
What Causes Power Grid Failure?
The two most common causes of power grid failure are system failure and equipment failure, but other events can also wreak havoc.
The power grid system may fail due to a disruption of equilibrium in power supplied and power drawn, triggering the line to trip and cutting off the supply of power. System failure was the culprit in Indonesia’s outage as well as in the frequent outages suffered by India.
A system failure can occur at the supply-end during extreme weather changes, such as a heat wave that causes an increase in the power drawn from the system to power cooling devices, or at the supplier-end if an error occurs in regulating the power input.
An equipment failure can occur at the station, transmission line, or transformer level. Any number of factors can be the cause of an equipment failure, such as an error in the digital processing system or physical damage due to an accident, construction, or weather.
Both the 2003 Northeast Blackout and power outages during Hurricane Katrina were caused by equipment failures.
Power grid failure can also be the result of malicious or criminal behavior, such as cyber terrorist or infrastructure attacks against a nation or a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) designed to disable electronic equipment. In the wake of 9/11, many feared the Northeast Blackout in 2003 was in fact a terrorist attack.
Power grids can also fail due to large-scale electromagnetic storms, an electromagnetic pulse (EMP), or a reversal in the Earth’s magnetic field – which can cause temporary disruptions or permanent damage to electronic devices. Click HERE Now to see our article on preparing for an EMP.
While events such as these have the potential to completely shut down power systems for an indefinite amount of time, the likelihood of their occurrence – and the extent of ensuing damage – has been hotly debated.
What Can I Expect During a Power Grid Failure?
The immediate aftermath of a power grid failure is the loss of power, which means modern day methods of communications, sanitation, lighting, cooking, refrigeration / preparation, and transportation will all be unavailable.
Within the first few days of a power outage, the disruption in supply of fuel for transportation will lead to shortages in other supplies such as food and medication. Many who wait several days before stockpiling will be greeted with empty and pillaged Supermarket shelves. Don’t rely on any emergency services – medical facilities, emergency responders, and public officials will more than likely be overwhelmed and unavailable.
If the outage continues for a week or more, civil unrest will begin to grow as food and other resources become scarce. People will no longer be able to run generators or vehicles as fuel supplies run out, and many will experience a disruption in their finances or incomes.
In the event a power outage stretches out into the long-term, such as several weeks or perhaps indefinitely, alternate means of power will need to be found along with long-term solutions to meet everyday needs.
What Will I Need to Prepare My Family?
The best thing you can have during a power grid failure is a positive attitude. Make sure to do whatever you can to encourage hopefulness and keep spirits high.
In addition to the right attitude, I recommend doing the following to properly prepare yourself and your family:
- Create a storage space that can be easily accessed in the dark
- Stockpile at least two-weeks worth of supplies
- Design a plan for preparing food, sanitation, living / sleeping quarters, entertainment (especially for children), and rationing for fuel and power sources
- Store jugs of water in the fridge now to be used during an outage to keep food from spoiling; however, once the water melts, it should be used for cleaning or flushing, not drinking
- Store a flashlight or lantern by every bed
There are ten integral categories that should be part of every well thought out power grid failure disaster plan:
- Drinking Water
- First Aid
- Additional Items
- Backup Power Systems
The following is a detailed discussion of the key knowledge and items to have as part of your disaster plan to ensure all the above categories are accounted for.
For drinking water, the general rule is that you should have 1-2 gallons per day available for each member of your household. A two-week supply of water for a family of four would mean having 56-112 gallons on hand. If you have pets, consider their needs as well; a rule of thumb is 1 ounce of water per pound of pet per day, so a 20 lbs dog would need 20 ounces a day.
You can further ensure access to clean drinking water by having a water filtration method available such as the LifeStraw Personal Water Filter or water purification packets. This will allow you to draw on water from unclean sources.
When stockpiling food for your family, you’ll want to plan for three meals per day, plus some snack foods for each member of your household. Don’t forget pets – include a two-week supply of food for them as well.
Choose food items that require little to no heating and that your family is familiar with. Consider that cooking requires substantially more fuel than heating; therefore, canned foods that need only be heated are favorable to dried foods that will require boiling. Oversize cans are great if you feel your family can consume all the contents in one sitting, otherwise the leftovers will spoil in the absence of refrigeration.
A convenient option for long-term food storage is to store some MREs (Meals Ready-to-Eat) which are designed for the military use but are a popular choice for stockpiling.
You can check out our Food Storage Guide here to help you decide what the best way is for YOUR family to keep your food supply.
Other key considerations when planning your food stockpile are as follows:
- Gas supply lines may also be affected by an outage so ensure you have an alternative means for cooking and boiling water, e.g. a camp stove, fire pit, or gas or charcoal grill
- For any of the above, be sure to have a two-week supply of fuel on hand such as firewood, propane, or charcoal
- Be sure to store at least two manual can openers with your food supply
In a power outage, electrical lighting sources will be unavailable so be sure to have a stash of lighting sources that can run independently of electricity, e.g. flashlights, candles and headlamps, as well as the means to power or light those items such as batteries, matches and lighters.
You should also have a lantern that is bright enough to light an entire room. Whether you choose one powered by batteries, propane, or a hand crank depends on your own personal preference.
To conserve as much power as possible, consider storing a solar battery charger set (like this solar charger here) along with multiple batteries of different sizes to accommodate all of your emergency gear. Solar garden lights and glow sticks can also be used to light up hallways and other frequently traveled areas without draining your battery power.
In the case of a power outage in cold climates, conserving and maintaining heat will be key to survival. Should you find yourself in this situation, gather everyone in your household into one room and lay a towel along the bottom of the door to seal it. Do the same for any windows to limit the possibility of drafts. By lighting several candles and relying on residual and body heat, you can expect to keep the temperature comfortable for at least 48 hours. After that, you will need an alternative source of heat until the power is restored.
A fireplace or wood stove can serve as an excellent alternative source for heating. Should you have access to either, ensure your stockpiles include plenty of fuel to keep your fireplace or stove burning. If this is how you will be warming your family, building an upside-down fire is a good way to have a long burning, self feeding fire. Learn how to make an upside-down fire here.
Another option is a portable propane space heater; however, this carries the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning without proper ventilation. No matter what heating source you choose, ensure you have a fire extinguisher available and ready should you need it.
An option for overnight heating that doesn’t involve the risk of flames or noxious fumes is to heat rocks on a fire then transfer them to a Dutch oven or other heat-safe cookware. The heat emitted from the rocks should be enough to provide heat throughout the night without compromising your safety.
In terms of gear, you will want to have blankets and low-temperature rated sleeping bags stored in an easily accessible location, so as to ensure quick retrieval even in the dark. You will also want to ensure each member of your household has enough clothing to cover them from head to toe, and enough layers so that they can add or remove clothing to regulate their temperature.
Having a hand crank radio (I recommend the Eton FRX2 Hand Crank Radio – see it here) can be invaluable in a power outage. In addition to providing important communications from the outside world, it can also be used to charge other electronic devices, such as cell phones. Keep in mind that cell phones and landlines cannot be depended on to work during power outages. It is always best to have backup methods of communication ready.
Having proper sanitation protocols in place can not only help with hygiene, but also boost morale.
Here are some helpful hints for ensuring you and your family can cope with sanitation issues during a prolonged power outage:
- Store plenty of disposable tableware to cut down on washing needs
- Stock plenty of antibacterial wipes and hand sanitizer, as these can be used without water
- Immediately after the power goes out, fill your bathtub and, if you have one, your washing machine with water to use for flushing and washing; if you don’t have a bathtub, fill as many buckets as you can from the shower or sink
- Find out ahead of time whether or not your toilet will flush without power – this can prevent sewage backup in your home
- If manually flushing your toilet by pouring water into the tank is not an option, make sure to add heavy duty contractor bags and kitty litter to your stockpile – these can be used to craft a toilet by lining a bucket with the contractor bags and adding kitty litter
- You can also purchase a toilet seat to attach to the top of the bucket (like this one here), which can be especially helpful with children who may be apprehensive about using it
- When the bag is full, or before it becomes too heavy to lift, tie it off and store it outside
- Keep a supply of baby wipes on hand to use in place of bathing, this will help conserve water
- In the case of a long-term outage, you will need a means of doing laundry; consider purchasing a hand-operated mobile washer with two buckets – one for washing and one for rinsing
- Don’t wait until you are down to your last set of clean clothes before doing laundry – remember, there are no dryers and air drying can sometimes take all night
In the case of a power outage, you will most likely be bugging-in and therefore have access to your household first aid supplies. However, it is still prudent to have a separate store of essential items such as bandages, antibiotic ointments, tools, any over-the-counter medications your family uses, and antidiarrheal medication to help your family cope with the change in sanitary and dietary conditions.
Check out our guide for building your own First Aid Kit HERE, along with a FREE Checklist!
It is also important to remember that emergencies services will most likely be overloaded and response times could be slow or the services unavailable completely. Include a copy of The American Red Cross First Aid & Safety Handbook to help you independently deal with medical emergencies.
As a power outage drags on, people will become increasingly desperate and the need to protect yourself and your family from those who aren’t so well prepared may arise. While firearms are always a popular choice, there are other options as well. Consider reinforcing the entranceways to your home and stocking weapons such as pepper spray.
Any additional items you pack need to be based on your family’s particular needs. Every household is unique, so make sure to pack items because they are essential to your family, not because your neighbor is storing them or you read it was a good idea on a blog.
Typical items to include would be:
- Prescription medications
- Pet care
- Feminine hygiene products
- And anything else you wouldn’t want to be without for two weeks or more.
If you have children, ensuring entertainment options are available is critical. Make sure to have items such as games, books, cards and crafts readily available. Adding some special, non-perishable treats to your food storage can also serve as a morale booster.
Backup Power Systems
Depending on your budget and location, having a backup power system for your home can be an excellent way to prepare for power grid failure.
The most popular choice as a backup power source for emergencies are gas-powered generators. The DuroMax XP4400E is an excellent choice for a gas-powered generator for your home. If you choose to get a generator, make sure it’s installed correctly and that you test it out to ensure you’re familiar with how it works.
Solar panels are a great option for homes with adequate sun exposure and can be used year-round to save on energy bills; however, they are expensive to purchase and install. Off-grid solar panel systems will continue to produce energy in the event of power grid failure. However, a solar panel system that is connected to the grid will also go down in the event of a blackout, therefore installing a backup battery for your grid-connected solar panels could be an option.
You may also want to consider the following, less expensive alternatives:
- A bicycle generator can be used to power small devices and appliances; some kits even include 12V battery charging attachments for creating stored power.
- A solar battery charger can provide power indefinitely for cell phones and battery-operated devices.
- A portable gas-fueled generator, such as the WEN 56200i, that is less powerful but can still come in handy for charging cell phones or running a small space heater.
As our reliance on electrical devices and appliances grows, the need to have a solid plan prepared in case of power grid failure becomes ever more pressing. As the ice storm of 2013 demonstrated, going without power for even several days can have devastating effects.
While power grid failure may be one of the more likely disaster scenarios, it is by no means any less calamitous than other scenarios. Use the advice and tips provided in this article to ensure you and your family will stand a fighting chance should you be faced with having to survive without power for a prolonged period of time.
Above all else, remember to maintain a positive attitude and that chance favors the well-prepared!
- Check out our article on Preparing for an EMP
- Watch this video from Blackout USA: Click HERE To Watch Now
What do you do to prepare your family for a power grid failure? What do you see as the biggest challenge to getting prepared? Let us know in the Comments Section below, thanks!